London Architectural Designs of 1800
It is arranged topographically. Not all the plans and drawings in our collection can be attributed to a specific architect but in some cases they are signed or otherwise identified as the work of a particular individual. The three tables in this section highlight those record series containing significant quantities of maps, plans and drawings relating to architecture and the built environment.
These series were inherited from various government departments, notably the former Office of Works, which accumulated series of records consisting wholly or largely of plans and drawings of buildings, or maps illustrating aspects of the built environment, usually in relation to planning and development. Many architectural plans and drawings were filed in series which consisted principally of maps. Click on the series references below to search within the respective series but keep in mind the following limitations:. The tables overlap in places, and you can expect to find some types of drawings and plans in series appearing in more than one of these tables.
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The plan did not make it past the drawing board. The card index provides a useful way to find records in the absence of detail in catalogue descriptions. Drawings of architectural details, fittings and furnishings may appear in many of the series listed in section 5, often relating to the contents of specific buildings. Other useful sources include:. Numerous institutions around the world hold collections of architectural drawings and related records. This section details those with significant collections of material with a connection to our records in their history or content.
All of the publications listed here are available for consultation at The National Archives library in Kew. The following two publications contain advice on records in our collection, with some information about plans and drawings:. Nick Barratt, Tracing the History of your House 2nd edition, The following guides may help you with your keyword choices when searching our catalogue and more generally:. For quick pointers Tuesday to Saturday to Discovery is a catalogue of archival records across the UK and beyond, from which you can search 32 million records.
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Skip to Main Content. Search our website Search our records. How to look for records of Architectural drawings How can I view the records covered in this guide? View online How many are online? None Some All.
Order copies We can either copy our records onto paper or deliver them to you digitally. Visit us in Kew Visit us in Kew to see original documents or view online records for free. Pay for research Consider paying for research. Contents 1. Why use this guide? What kinds of architectural drawings do we hold? How to search 4. How to search for the plans and drawings of specific architects 5. Key records series 6.
A History of British Architecture
Architectural furnishings and fittings 7. Architectural drawings held elsewhere 8. Further reading and resources. Architectural drawings held elsewhere Numerous institutions around the world hold collections of architectural drawings and related records. Large numbers of plans and drawings created by local government and other bodies are held in local authority record offices. Historic England Archive — substantial collections of drawings created or collected by government departments are held by the Historic England Archive.
Records shed light on the history of specific buildings built for or occupied by government departments, among other things. National Records of Scotland — holdings include government records relating to public works, and some records of former or present public utilities. National Library of Wales — holdings include government records relating to public works, and some records of former or present public utilities. Public Record Office of Northern Ireland — holds some records relating to British government in Ireland before as well as specifically Northern Irish records.
The National Archives of Ireland — holds some records relating to British government in Ireland before Research and Special Collections Available Locally — a hub for research resources relating to Ireland, including EHS: Built Heritage , which It aims to identify, record and protect the built, buried and underwater remains of human activity from prehistoric times to the present day. Material on buildings or architects, in the public or private sector, from the Renaissance to the present day. Royal Institute of British Architects — home to one of the largest and most diverse architectural collections in the world.
Further reading and resources All of the publications listed here are available for consultation at The National Archives library in Kew. Contact us for advice. Still need help? Live chat For quick pointers Tuesday to Saturday to Email For more detailed research enquiries. Related research guides. Architectural history records held by other archives. Overseas maps and plans. As the Roman Empire occupied these lands, both Persian and Egyptian columns have influenced Western architecture. Archaeological discoveries in Egypt reawakened an interest in the ancient temples and monuments.
Egyptian Revival architecture became fashionable during the s. In the early s, the discovery of King Tut's tomb stirred a fascination for Egyptian artifacts and the rise of Art Deco architecture. Classical architecture refers to the style and design of buildings in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Classical architecture shaped our approach to building in Western colonies around the world. From the rise of ancient Greece until the fall of the Roman empire, great buildings were constructed according to precise rules.
The Roman architect Marcus Vitruvius, who lived during first century B. In his writings, Vitruvius introduced the Classical orders , which defined column styles and entablature designs used in Classical architecture. The earliest Classical orders were Doric , Ionic , and Corinthian. Although we combine this architectural era and call it "Classical," historians have described these three Classical periods:. The Doric column was first developed in Greece and it was used for great temples, including the famous Parthenon in Athens.
Simple Ionic columns were used for smaller temples and building interiors. When Greece was at the height of its power in Europe and Asia, the empire built elaborate temples and secular buildings with Ionic and Corinthian columns. The Hellenistic period ended with conquests by the Roman Empire. The Romans borrowed heavily from the earlier Greek and Hellenistic styles, but their buildings were more highly ornamented. They used Corinthian and composite style columns along with decorative brackets. The invention of concrete allowed the Romans to build arches, vaults, and domes.
Much of this ancient architecture is in ruins or partially rebuilt. Virtual reality programs like Romereborn. Emperor Justinian to led the way. Eastern and Western traditions combined in the sacred buildings of the Byzantine period. Buildings were designed with a central dome that eventually rose to new heights by using engineering practices refined in the Middle East. As Rome spread across Europe, heavier, stocky Romanesque architecture with rounded arches emerged.
Churches and castles of the early Medieval period were constructed with thick walls and heavy piers. Even as the Roman Empire faded, Roman ideas reached far across Europe. Sernin in Toulouse, France is a good example of this transitional architecture, with a Byzantine-domed apse and an added Gothic-like steeple. The floor plan is that of the Latin cross , Gothic-like again, with a high alter and tower at the cross intersection. Constructed of stone and brick, St. Sernin is on the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela.
Early in the 12th century, new ways of building meant that cathedrals and other large buildings could soar to new heights. Gothic architecture became characterized by the elements that supported taller, more graceful architecture — innovations such as pointed arches, flying buttresses , and ribbed vaulting.
In addition, elaborate stained glass could take the place of walls that no longer were used to support high ceilings. Gargoyles and other sculpting enabled practical and decorative functions. Many of the world's most well-known sacred places are from this period in architectural history, including Chartres Cathedral and Paris' Notre Dame Cathedral in France and Dublin's St.
Patrick's Cathedral and Adare Friary in Ireland. Gothic architecture began mainly in France where builders began to adapt the earlier Romanesque style. Builders were also influenced by the pointed arches and elaborate stonework of Moorish architecture in Spain. One of the earliest Gothic buildings was the ambulatory of the abbey of St.
Denis in France, built between and Originally, Gothic architecture was known as the French Style.
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During the Renaissance, after the French Style had fallen out of fashion, artisans mocked it. They coined the word Gothic to suggest that French Style buildings were the crude work of German Goth barbarians.
london architectural designs of Manual
Although the label wasn't accurate, the name Gothic remained. While builders were creating the great Gothic cathedrals of Europe, painters and sculptors in northern Italy were breaking away from rigid medieval styles and laying the foundation for the Renaissance. Art historians call the period between to the Early Renaissance or the Proto-Renaissance of art history.
Fascination for medieval Gothic architecture was reawakened in the 19th and 20th centuries. Architects in Europe and the United States designed great buildings and private homes that imitated the cathedrals of medieval Europe. If a building looks Gothic and has Gothic elements and characteristics, but it was built in the s or later, its style is Gothic Revival. A return to Classical ideas ushered an "age of awakening" in Italy, France, and England. During the Renaissance era architects and builders were inspired by the carefully proportioned buildings of ancient Greece and Rome. Italian Renaissance master Andrea Palladio helped awaken a passion for classical architecture when he designed beautiful, highly symmetrical villas such as Villa Rotonda near Venice, Italy.
More than 1, years after the Roman architect Vitruvius wrote his important book, the Renaissance architect Giacomo da Vignola outlined Vitruvius's ideas. In this book, Palladio showed how Classical rules could be used not just for grand temples but also for private villas. Palladio's ideas did not imitate the Classical order of architecture but his designs were in the manner of ancient designs. The work of the Renaissance masters spread across Europe, and long after the era ended, architects in the Western world would find inspiration in the beautifully proportioned architecture of the period.
In the United States its descendant designs have been called neoclassical. Early in the s, an elaborate new architectural style lavished buildings. What became known as Baroque was characterized by complex shapes, extravagant ornaments, opulent paintings, and bold contrasts. In Italy, the Baroque style is reflected in opulent and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and extravagant ornamentation. In France, the highly ornamented Baroque style combines with Classical restraint.
Russian aristocrats were impressed by the Palace of Versailles, France and incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St. Elements of the elaborate Baroque style are found throughout Europe. Architecture was only one expression of the Baroque style. In music, famous names included Bach, Handel, and Vivaldi.
Famous inventors and scientists of the day include Blaise Pascal and Isaac Newton. During the last phase of the Baroque period, builders constructed graceful white buildings with sweeping curves. Rococo art and architecture is characterized by elegant decorative designs with scrolls, vines, shell-shapes, and delicate geometric patterns. Rococo architects applied Baroque ideas with a lighter, more graceful touch. In fact, some historians suggest that Rococo is simply a later phase of the Baroque period. By the s, European architects were turning away from elaborate Baroque and Rococo styles in favor of restrained Neoclassical approaches.
Orderly, symmetrical Neoclassical architecture reflected the intellectual awakening among the middle and upper classes in Europe during the period historians often call the Enlightenment. Ornate Baroque and Rococo styles fell out of favor as architects for a growing middle class reacted to and rejected the opulence of the ruling class. These buildings were proportioned according to the classical orders with details borrowed from ancient Greece and Rome.
In the late s and early s, the newly-formed United States drew upon Classical ideals to construct grand government buildings and an array of smaller, private homes. The style spread to architecture and furniture in the s as a revolt against industrialization turned people's attention to the natural forms and personal craftsmanship of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Art Nouveau buildings often have asymmetrical shapes, arches, and decorative Japanese-like surfaces with curved, plant-like designs and mosaics. The period is often confused with Art Deco , which has an entirely different visual look and philosophical origin.
In Germany it was called Jugendstil ; in Austria it was Sezessionsstil ; in Spain it was Modernismo , which predicts or event begins the modern era. Also known as Beaux Arts Classicism, Academic Classicism, or Classical Revival, Beaux Arts architecture is characterized by order, symmetry, formal design, grandiosity, and elaborate ornamentation. Combining classical Greek and Roman architecture with Renaissance ideas, Beaux Arts architecture was a favored style for grand public buildings and opulent mansions. In the early 20th century, medieval Gothic ideas were applied to modern buildings, both private homes and the new type of architecture called skyscrapers.
Gothic Revival was a Victorian style inspired by Gothic cathedrals and other medieval architecture. In the early 20th century, Gothic Revival ideas were applied to modern skyscrapers, which are often called Neo-Gothic. Neo-Gothic skyscrapers often have strong vertical lines and a sense of great height; arched and pointed windows with decorative tracery; gargoyles and other medieval carvings; and pinnacles.
The architects Raymond Hood and John Howells were selected over many other architects to design the building. Their Neo-Gothic design may have appealed to the judges because it reflected a conservative some critics said "regressive" approach.