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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

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ISBN - On the Content tab, click to select the Enable JavaScript check box. Click OK to close the Options popup. Lewis "single-handedly created a style of humor that was half anarchy, half excruciation. Even comics who never took a pratfall in their careers owe something to the self-deprecation Jerry introduced into American show business.

Lewis' comedy style was physically uninhibited, expressive, and potentially volatile. He was known especially for his distinctive voice, facial expressions, pratfalls, and physical stunts. His improvisations and ad-libbing, especially in nightclubs and early television, were revolutionary among performers. It was "marked by a raw, edgy energy that would distinguish him within the comedy landscape. Carrey wrote: "Through his comedy, Jerry would stretch the boundaries of reality so far that it was an act of anarchy I learned from Jerry", [] and "I am because he was".

Acting the bumbling and stammering ' everyman ', Lewis used tightly choreographed, sophisticated sight gags, physical routines, verbal double-talk and malapropisms. Lewis' work, specifically his self-directed films, have warranted steady reappraisal. He knew how to frame and present his own adrenaline-fuelled, instinctive physical comedy for the camera.

Lewis was in the forefront in the transition to independent filmmaking , which came to be known as New Hollywood in the late s. Writing for the Los Angeles Times in , screenwriter David Weddle lauded Lewis' audacity in "daring to declare his independence from the studio system. The studios tightly controlled the process and they wanted their people directing. Yet Lewis regularly led, often flouting the power structure to do so. Control over material was smart business, and it was also good art. Neither the entrepreneur nor the auteur were common types among actors in midth century Hollywood.

But there Lewis was, at a time of strict studio control, doing both. No other comedic star, with the exceptions of Chaplin and Keaton in the silent era , dared to direct himself. Lewis, on the other hand, was interested in exploring the possibilities of the medium by utilizing the tools he had at his disposal in formally innovative and oftentimes hilarious ways. His purposeful selection of lenses, for example, expands and contracts space to generate laughs that aren't necessarily inherent in the material, and he often achieves his biggest effects via what he leaves off screen, not just visually but structurally.

As a director, Lewis advanced the film comedy genre with innovations in the areas of fragmented narrative, experimental use of music and sound technology, and near surrealist use of color and art direction. Lewis is the only one today who's making courageous films.

He's been able to do it because of his personal genius". Intensely personal and original, Lewis' films were groundbreaking in their use of dark humor for psychological exploration. Few comedians before him had so brazenly turned arrested development into art, or held up such a warped fun house mirror to American identity in its loudest, ugliest, vulgarest excesses.

Fewer still had advanced the still-radical notion that comedy doesn't always have to be funny, just fearless, in order to strike a nerve". Pre , Hollywood comedies were screwball or farce. Lewis, from his earliest 'home movies, such as How to Smuggle a Hernia Across the Border , made in his playhouse in the early s, was one of the first to introduce satire as a full-length film. This "sharp eyed" satire continued in his mature work, commenting on the cult of celebrity, the machinery of 'fame', and "the dilemma of being true to oneself while also fitting into polite society.

Even post-modern in places. Lewis was an early master of deconstruction to enhance comedy. From the first Comedy Hour s he exposed the artifice of on stage performance by acknowledging the lens, sets, malfunctioning props, failed jokes, and tricks of production. As Jonathan Rosenbaum wrote: Lewis had "the impulse to deconstruct and even demolish the fictional "givens" of any particular sketch, including those that he might have dreamed up himself, a kind of perpetual auto-destruction that becomes an essential part of his filmmaking as he steadily gains more control over the writing and direction of his features.

Daniel Fairfax writes in Deconstructing Jerry: Lewis as a Director , "Lewis deconstructs the very functioning of the joke itself". Robert DeNiro and Sandra Bernhard both of whom starred with Lewis in The King of Comedy reflected on his death, Bernhard said, "It was one of the great experiences of my career, he was tough but one of a kind". De Niro said, "Jerry was a pioneer in comedy and film. And he was a friend. I was fortunate to have seen him a few times over the past couple of years. Even at 91, he didn't miss a beat You'll be missed.

From the outset he was generous. Jerry Lewis epitomised that. Jerry embodied the term "funny bones": a way of differentiating between comedians who tell funny and those who are funny. He was unbelievably complicated and shockingly self-aware. Actor and comedian Jeffrey Tambor wrote after Lewis' death, "You invented the whole thing. Thank you doesn't even get close. There have been numerous retrospectives of Lewis' films in the U. Lewis is one of the few performers to have touched every aspect of 20th Century American entertainment, appearing in vaudeville , burlesque , the ' borsht belt ', nightclubs , radio , Classical Hollywood Cinema The 'Golden Age' , Las Vegas , television: variety, drama, sit-coms and talk shows, Broadway and independent films.

On August 21, , multiple hotel marquees on the Las Vegas Strip honored Lewis with a coordinated video display of images of his career as a Las Vegas performer and resident. Maisel , Lewis' signature catchphrase "Hey, Laaady! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the entertainer. For other people named Jerry Lewis, see Jerry Lewis disambiguation. Not to be confused with Jerry Lee Lewis. Newark, New Jersey , U. Las Vegas, Nevada , U. Comedian actor singer film director film producer screenwriter humanitarian.

Patti Palmer m. SanDee Pitnick m. Main article: Martin and Lewis. Jerry Lewis was the most profoundly creative comedian of his generation and arguably one of the two or three most influential comedians born anywhere in this century. As a filmmaker who insisted on the personal side of his work—who was producer, writer, director, star, and over-all boss of his productions in the interest of his artistic conception and passion—he was an auteur by temperament and in practice long before the word travelled Stateside.

Further information: Jerry Lewis filmography. August 22, The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, The Boston Globe. Quigley Publishing Company — via Wikipedia. Retrieved June 26, Jewish Journal. Retrieved February 4, Retrieved October 23, Retrieved January 2, October 25, Retrieved June 16, Jerry Lewis: In Person. New York: Atheneum. The Last American Clown. July 12, — via YouTube. Martin's Press — via Google Books. Dean and Me. Three Rivers Press. ABC News.

Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved January 15, The Oscars — via YouTube. Inventing Jerry Lewis.

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Smithsonian Institution Press. June 10, Retrieved June 15, — via Archive. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 26, New Yorker Magazine. Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved November 7, Film Comment. Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved August 22, Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, Retrieved June 15, Retrieved July 31, — via imdb. Retrieved July 31, — via YouTube. Orange County Register. August 20, The Total Filmmaker.

Random House. The Film. LA Times. The Straight Dope. Retrieved May 4, May 19, Retrieved May 21, August 4, September 3, Baltimore Sun. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 16, July 27, Retrieved August 23, Associated Press. May 1, June 24, SF Weekly. Retrieved October 19, December 31, Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved December 20, Retrieved December 20, — via The Guardian.

The Guardian. December 18, Retrieved December 20, — via YouTube. The Daily Telegraph. People Magazine. Retrieved November 26, Country Living. September 22, February 3, Archived from the original on May 11, October 6, July 31, Architectural Digest. January 7, Bismarck had again warned the Kaiser about the increasing influence of militarists, especially of the admirals who were pushing for the construction of a battle fleet.

Bismarck's last warning had been:. Your Majesty, so long as you have this present officer corps, you can do as you please. But when this is no longer the case, it will be very different for you.

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Jena came twenty years after the death of Frederick the Great ; the crash will come twenty years after my departure if things go on like this. On 10 November, Wilhelm crossed the border by train and went into exile in the Netherlands, which had remained neutral throughout the war. King George V wrote that he looked on his cousin as "the greatest criminal in history", but opposed Prime Minister David Lloyd George 's proposal to "hang the Kaiser". President Woodrow Wilson of the United States opposed extradition, arguing that prosecuting Wilhelm would destabilise international order and lose the peace.

Wilhelm first settled in Amerongen , where on 28 November he issued a belated statement of abdication from both the Prussian and imperial thrones, thus formally ending the Hohenzollerns' year rule over Prussia. Accepting the reality that he had lost both of his crowns for good, he gave up his rights to "the throne of Prussia and to the German Imperial throne connected therewith. The Weimar Republic allowed Wilhelm to remove twenty-three railway wagons of furniture, twenty-seven containing packages of all sorts, one bearing a car and another a boat, from the New Palace at Potsdam.

In , Wilhelm published the first volume of his memoirs [79] —a very slim volume that insisted he was not guilty of initiating the Great War, and defended his conduct throughout his reign, especially in matters of foreign policy. For the remaining twenty years of his life, he entertained guests often of some standing and kept himself updated on events in Europe.

He grew a beard and allowed his famous moustache to droop. He also learned the Dutch language. Wilhelm developed a penchant for archaeology while residing at the Corfu Achilleion , excavating at the site of the Temple of Artemis in Corfu , a passion he retained in his exile. He had bought the former Greek residence of Empress Elisabeth after her murder in He also sketched plans for grand buildings and battleships when he was bored. In exile, one of Wilhelm's greatest passions was hunting, and he bagged thousands of animals, both beast and bird.

Much of his time was spent chopping wood and thousands of trees were chopped down during his stay at Doorn. In the early s, Wilhelm apparently hoped that the successes of the German Nazi Party would stimulate interest in a restoration of the monarchy, with his eldest grandson as the fourth Kaiser.

His second wife, Hermine, actively petitioned the Nazi government on her husband's behalf. However, Adolf Hitler , himself a veteran of the First World War , like other leading Nazis, felt nothing but contempt for the man they blamed for Germany's greatest defeat, and the petitions were ignored. Hearing of the murder of the wife of former Chancellor Schleicher , he said "We have ceased to live under the rule of law and everyone must be prepared for the possibility that the Nazis will push their way in and put them up against the wall!

Wilhelm was also appalled at the Kristallnacht of 9—10 November , saying "I have just made my views clear to Auwi [Wilhelm's fourth son] in the presence of his brothers. He had the nerve to say that he agreed with the Jewish pogroms and understood why they had come about. When I told him that any decent man would describe these actions as gangsterisms, he appeared totally indifferent. He is completely lost to our family". He builds legions, but he doesn't build a nation.

A nation is created by families, a religion, traditions: it is made up out of the hearts of mothers, the wisdom of fathers, the joy and the exuberance of children For a few months I was inclined to believe in National Socialism. I thought of it as a necessary fever. And I was gratified to see that there were, associated with it for a time, some of the wisest and most outstanding Germans.

But these, one by one, he has got rid of or even killed He has left nothing but a bunch of shirted gangsters! This man could bring home victories to our people each year, without bringing them either glory or danger. But of our Germany, which was a nation of poets and musicians, of artists and soldiers, he has made a nation of hysterics and hermits, engulfed in a mob and led by a thousand liars or fanatics. In the wake of the German victory over Poland in September , Wilhelm's adjutant, General von Dommes, wrote on his behalf to Hitler, stating that the House of Hohenzollern "remained loyal" and noted that nine Prussian Princes one son and eight grandchildren were stationed at the front, concluding "because of the special circumstances that require residence in a neutral foreign country, His Majesty must personally decline to make the aforementioned comment.

The Emperor has therefore charged me with making a communication. During his last year at Doorn, Wilhelm believed that Germany was the land of monarchy and therefore of Christ, and that England was the land of liberalism and therefore of Satan and the Anti-Christ. We must drive Juda out of England just as he has been chased out of the Continent.

He believed the Freemasons and Jews had caused the two world wars, aiming at a world Jewish empire with British and American gold, but that "Juda's plan has been smashed to pieces and they themselves swept out of the European Continent! We are becoming the U. Also in came what would have been his mother's th birthday, on which he wrote ironically to a friend "Today the th birthday of my mother! No notice is taken of it at home! No 'Memorial Service' or Nobody of the new generation knows anything about her. Wilhelm died of a pulmonary embolus in Doorn, Netherlands, on 4 June , at the age of 82, just weeks before the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union.

German soldiers had been guarding his house. Hitler, however, was reported [ by whom? Despite his personal animosity toward Wilhelm, Hitler wanted to bring his body back to Berlin for a state funeral, as Wilhelm was a symbol of Germany and Germans during the previous World War. Hitler felt that such a funeral would demonstrate to the Germans the direct descent of the Third Reich from the old German Empire. The mourners included August von Mackensen , fully dressed in his old imperial Life Hussars uniform, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris , and Reichskommissar for the Netherlands Arthur Seyss-Inquart , along with a few other military advisers.

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  4. However, Wilhelm's request that the swastika and other Nazi regalia be not displayed at his funeral was ignored, and they are featured in the photographs of the event taken by a Dutch photographer. Wilhelm was buried in a mausoleum in the grounds of Huis Doorn, which has since become a place of pilgrimage for German monarchists. A few of these gather there every year on the anniversary of his death to pay their homage to the last German Emperor. Three trends have characterised the writing about Wilhelm.

    First, the court-inspired writers considered him a martyr and a hero, often uncritically accepting the justifications provided in the Kaiser's own memoirs. Second, there came those who judged Wilhelm to be completely unable to handle the great responsibilities of his position, a ruler too reckless to deal with power. Third, after , later scholars have sought to transcend the passions of the early 20th century and attempted an objective portrayal of Wilhelm and his rule. On 8 June , a year before the Great War began, The New York Times published a special supplement devoted to the 25th anniversary of the Kaiser's accession.

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    The accompanying story called him "the greatest factor for peace that our time can show", and credited Wilhelm with frequently rescuing Europe from the brink of war. Partly that was a deception by German officials. Later historians downplayed his role, arguing that senior officials learned to work around him. More recently historian John C. They had seven children:. Empress Augusta, known affectionately as "Dona", was a constant companion to Wilhelm, and her death on 11 April was a devastating blow.

    It also came less than a year after their son Joachim committed suicide. Wilhelm found Hermine very attractive, and greatly enjoyed her company. The couple were wed on 9 November , despite the objections of Wilhelm's monarchist supporters and his children. Hermine remained a constant companion to the ageing former emperor until his death. It was a United Protestant denomination, bringing together Reformed and Lutheran believers.

    Wilhelm II was on friendly terms with the Muslim world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German Emperor and King of Prussia. Portrait of Wilhelm II in , by T. See list. Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz m. This section includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations.

    February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Daily Telegraph Affair. Further information: German entry into World War I.

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    Main article: July Crisis. An das deutsche Volk. Extract from Wilhelm's public address for mobilisation, 6 August Main article: Abdication of Wilhelm II. Statement of Abdication. The Huis Doorn in Huis Doorn in the Netherlands. William I, German Emperor 9. Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 2. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia 1. Wilhelm II, German Emperor Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 3. Victoria, Princess Royal Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn 7. Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

    Austria-Hungary : Order of St. Alexander Nevsky , Knight, Order of St. Anna , 1st Class, Order of St. Cambridge UP. Wilhelm II: Emperor and Exile, — Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved Oscar Klaussmann German History in Documents and Images. Retrieved 24 December Entwicklungslinien Volume ed. Cambridge University Press. Journal The London Gazette. Retrieved 2 October Islam and the European Empires illustrated ed. Oxford University Press. Landau Pan-Islam: History and Politics. The Economist. Retrieved 2 September The Literary Digest. Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 23 December Riddere af Elefantordenen, — in Danish.

    Syddansk Universitetsforlag. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 10 August Craig, Gordon A, Germany — Gilbert, Martin , First World War. Langer, William L; et al. Massie, Robert K. Mombauer, Annika and Wilhelm Deist, eds. Steinberg, Jonathan Bismarck: A Life. Weinert, Christoph , Wilhelm II. Clark, Christopher M. Kaiser Wilhelm II. Kohut, Thomas A. Mommsen, Wolfgang J. Otte, T. Retallack, James.