Lehnwortbeziehungen zwischen der deutschen und der niederländischen Sprache (German Edition)
Esysupp1 for notes, citation in text of article. Cosmas Indicopleustes. Christian Topography. Montfaucon, reprinted in PG McCrindle, Winstedt, Wolska. See also Anastos. White Huns, see Authors file. Costa-Louillet, G. Luc le Jeune, for Clement of Ohrid. Cozza-Luzi, Giuseppe, ed. Peter of Argos.
In Nova patrum bibliotheca. Vol 9. Rome, Croke, Brian. DF C7. Croke, Brian, ed. The Chronicle of Marcellinus. Sidney: Australian Association for Byzantine studies, Pims DF M Cross, Samuel H. Scandinavian promotion, overlooks significance of oriental coins. CC 1 A In Russian, with summary in French. Chroniques byzantines du manuscrit WCat Anonymus Bruxellensis.
Curtin, Philip D. Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. HF C Undergrad, but good foundations. Cyriacus of Ancona . Also known as Pizzicolli. See Bodnar, Colin, Essen in Crusade. Editor of Strabo. Curious that the 7th book of Strabo on the Balkans still existed in the days of Eusthatius but had disappeared by the days of Cyriacus. Dagron, Gilbert, ed. DF I4 V Dagron, Gilbert. Dain, Alphonse. Les manuscrits. Second, revised edition Dandekar, Ramchandra Narajan.
The Age of the Guptas and other Essays. DS D Dani, Ahmad Hassan. Inscriptions in Kharoshthi script start in the mid-third century BC and the most recent are from the period of the Later Kushanas, third-fourth century AD. The territory covers roughly ancient Gandhara and Turkestan. Origin in Aramaic Script. Danylenko, Andrii. D A1 S Darmesteter, James. DF 10 R4. Le Zend-Avesta. P La Or M, per. Sassanian History. Ephthalites, Notitiae Episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae.
Datema, Cornelis, and Pauline Allen, eds. Leontii Presbyter Constantinopolitani homiliae. CCSG, Datema, Cornelis, and Pauline Allen, trs. David of Thessalonica, St. AASS June 26, vol 7. Should be dated to Justin II. Dawes, E. Baynes, tr. BX D Delaporte, L. Important but not for the Huns. Delatte, Armand. HT J3. Delehaye, Hippolyte. Sabae Gothi. Goths but not Huns. See Pancrace.
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CB Settimane 37 Demougeot, Emilienne. DG M4. Dengate, J. Depreux, Philippe. AD Derolez, R. Desiachikov, Yuri M. D 51 A With English summary. Destombes, Marcel. Imago Mundi, suppl 4. Amsterdam, Dewing, Henry Bronson, ed. Loeb Classical Library. Diehl, Charles. Living conditions in Anatolia. Ends with death of Michael III.
Diekamp, Franz. P Hist G 1 — 18 and D1 H76 per. Dieten, Jan Louis van. Geschichte der griechischen Patriarchen von Konstantinopel. Hakkert, BX D54 v 4. Summary of opinions. Diller, Aubrey. Slavonic chronicles. D T7. See Slavon. Dindorf, Ludwig, ed. Chronicon paschale ad exemplar Vaticanum. CSHB, 4 and 5. Heraclius and the Sava and Incident dated to 17th regnal year of Heraclius by Theophanes and Symeon Logothete. Dindorf, Ludwig. PA 3 N65, 12th Apex. Notes on C. Dirr, Adolf. Hinrichs, PJ 26 K Leipzig: Verlag der Asia Major, PK D5.
HF S HC 41 D Donini, Guido, and Gordon B. Ford, Jr. D I Donner, Fred McGraw. The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton Studies on the Near East. Princeton UP, Doorninck, F. CC 1 I6. Dorn, Boris Andrievich. DK C3 D6. Dorn, Bernhard. AS A Check other vols for Anushirvan. Dostourian, A. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa. Rutger PhD Ann Arbor, Drouin, Edmond A. After the Arab conquest, Cufic script takes over.
Drouin, Edmond. Drouin, Edmond Alphonse.
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Review of L. Catalogue of ancient muslim coins. Journal asiatique. Important for chronology. Fils du ciel, shah. Paris, ???. Droysen, H. Pauli Historia Romana. MGH: Auctorum antiquissimorum. DG P3. Up to the days of Belisarius, Vitigis and Narses. Up to the days of Anastasius and the beginning of Avar raids. Evtropi Breviarivm ab vrbe condita cvm versionibvs graecis et Pavli Landolfiqve additamentis. With parallel Greek translation. Drew, Katherine Fischer. Law codes.
Dubois, J. CJ M Re St. Eloi, with biblio. Dubov, Igor Vasilievich. Finnish series or per, where? Igor tale. Duchesne, Louis. For BN , see Dujcev, Ivan. Nicephorus proceeded to Sofia, Medioevo Bizantino-slavo. Storia e letteratura, , , DR 74 D8. Duket, Timothy Alan. PhD Boston College.
Boston, Dulaurier, Edouard, tr. D R folio. Evacuation of Sirmium dated to the fourth year of Tiberius, i. The Chronographer mentions also the accidental fire which drove the Slavs from Sirmium a year after its capture However, his dates are not absolutely reliable. Dumas, Auguste. Paris D M Dumoulin, Maurice. Vol 1 of The Cambridge Medieval History. Informants are refugees from the Caucasus. Weddings, f. Duplessy, Jean. Cites documents which refer to Arab currency ff. See ESY, ema. Dupraz, Louis.
Pims DC 65 D8. Anything which would explain Fredegar? Important, also Crusade. Duval, Rubens. Offprint from JA. For Syrian chronicles of the Dark Ages. Dvornik, Francis. Eberle, Melchior. Der heilige Bonifatius, Apostel der Deutsche. Augsburg, Pamph HEcclG E. Eck, Alexandre. DK 71 E Have file. Eckhardt, W. DD A Includes edition. Vita Sturmii. PL Translatio SS Marcellini et Petri. See Bondois. Goar for same data. Compare with import of leather for jerkins from Slavic lands. Ekblom, Richard. A Philological Miscellany presented to Eilert Ekwall. PB 5 S7. Includes translation of passage.
Eligius, St. Vita Eligii. The author lived at the court of Dagobert. Eloi by Audoenus. See Dubois. Emin, Nikita Osipovich. Issledovaniia i statii po armianskoi… gg. With translations into Russia of ancient historians. Erbe, Michael. Quelle zur germanischen Bekehrungsgeschichte. BV E DB A Ericsson, K. Espinas, G. Brussels, Vita sancti Severini. MGH AA 1. BR S4 E8. Evagrius Scholasticus. Historia ecclesiastica. Wrote about the period??? Evans, Angela. Oslo, Ewig, Eugen. Wiesbaden, DC 61 E93? Jahrhundert Trierer Zeitschrift. DD T8T8 Incomplete. DC 61 B Die Merowinger und das Imperium.
DD E Fagerlie, Joan M. CJ F3. Faider-Feytmans, G. Favrod, Justin, ed. D 17 F Huns, Avars. Feist, Sigmund. Fengler, O. DD H17 H3. Ferluga, Jadran. DF F Settimane 40 Fichtenau, Heinrich. DB 1 V5. Fick, Richard. Die buddhistischen Kultur und das Erbe Alexanders des Grossen. Morgenland, Fihrist, , Recalls the inscription of Janoshida. Finley, M. Flaskamp, F. BQX F Fontaine, Jacques. Gerstein D 1 C BX I78 F Forster, Johann Reinhold . Foster, B. Harvard UP, PA A2. Frank, Tenney. Re Limitani in North Africa. Franz, Philip, and Peter Kudrika. Pims PG A In Russian, in Latin transcription.
Freshfield, EH, tr. Fried, Johannes.
Oxford: Clarendon, DC 74 C Friedrich, Johann. Fries, N. Not UTL. Fritze, Wolfgang H. A MUST. Frolow, A. Important for sources but discursive, and point escapes me. Frye, Richard N. Notes on the Early coinage of Transoxania. CJ M4 N A mine of information. Frye, Richard Nelson. The History of Ancient Iran. Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 3,7. Fulford, M.
CB R Fustel de Coulanges. P Pol Sci A. La monarchie franque. JN F8. See Isidore of Seville on Chios. Gamber, Ganshof, F. DE 1 A Milan, Ganz, David and Walter Goffart. Expugnationis Hierosolymae A. Pims DS DF G From Clovis to Charles the Bald. Gasnault, Pierre, ed. Gaube, Heinz. Arabosasanidische Numismatik. CJ G3. Gaudenzi, A. Bologna, Gauthiot, Robert. PH 1 S7. Z R With edition. PN S8. Both used Orosius as well as others, ff. Microfilm edition Cambridge, Mass. Das erschien mir etwas undeutlich, aber ich denke, dass Ihre Deutung durchaus plausibel ist.
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Like this: Like Loading August 5, at pm. August 6, at am. The backgammon board underneath shows geometric tongues in mother-of-pearl and ebony, and in the middle between the fields a geometric pattern. As in the other example, top and frame are inlaid with tortoiseshell and engraved mother-of-pearl, but the table is much smaller than the one in the residence in Munich, which is an indication that the smaller table was made for one of the summer residences probably Nymphenburg of Max Emanuel, where it would be standing in one of the private cabinets.
The material is very precious again, which elevates the games table to a representative piece of furniture. On the middle piece of the tabletop are inlaid ornaments of acantus leaves with various gaming scenes: in the middle a couple of courtiers playing backgammon, in the corners scenes of skittles, card, dice and billiards games. The scene of card-playing men is imitated by card-playing monkeys, who are symbols for immorality and allude to the ambiguous role of games. The middle scene on the tabletop is framed by ten medallions which depict the portraits of ten commanders of the ally in the war of Austria against the Ottomans.
They are the victors of the battle of Kahlenberg near Vienna of , and most of them can be identified by their coats of arms. In the corners of the top is the double eagle of the Emperor, framed by Habsburg banners and Turkish war trophies. The medallions are framed with arabesques entwined with victory allegories of defeated Turks and putti with arms.
This games table not only carries allegories of war, but also scenes which are typical activities in the summer residences, namely playing indoor and outdoor games. Combined with the allegories of the victories over the Turks, the iconografic programme on the games table in a double meaning alludes to peace: only in times of peace, which can be achieved by the victories of the wise reign of the sovereign, it is possible to play games.
This table is one of a pair, but the other table, which is in the Residence in Ansbach Inv. M , is only a fragment, the underframe is missing. The two tables are not exactly identical, the example in Ansbach does not show the portraits of the commanders, but exotic animals, symbols of the continents and times of the day, only in the acantus-leave ornament are entwined a few war trophies and allegories on the war with the Turks.
The topics on those three games tables cannot only be explained by personal success of the electoral prince Max Emanuel. In the 17th century, war and military were important topics, and contemporary or historical battles, especially of the Roman empire, were frequently depicted. This was not only the case in fine arts, but also in applied arts, especially in the relief carvings from Eger, where military topics were often applied on board games.
In the second half of the 17th century, when Christian Europe was endangered by the Ottomans, battles between Turks and Christians but also battles taken from the Bible were supposed to depict the superiority of the Christian belief. Especially towards the end of the 17th century, when the armies of Emperor Leopold I had military success against the Turks, this topic was used more often by Eger artists, also on board games, where relief carvings with military scenes were inlaid on the front, but also inside the backgammon-board, where the triangles often where shaped as obelisks with war trophies, and the frieze between the spaces could depict miniature scenes of land and sea battles Voigt, Board games like chess, morris, draughts and backgammon always have been something special, which can be explained by their function and symbolic meaning.
The combination of chess and backgammon trictrac is traditional and can be found in the earliest European board-game box of around kept in Aschaffenburg in the Stiftsmuseum and on hundreds of later board games and games tables. Chess as the noblest of all games is a symbol for strategy, the world, and the idea of universal education. Traditionally board-game boxes also have a morris board, though in Eger this space was occupied by carvings in relief. In combination with the war allegories or pictures, they also deliver a historical and political message; the same can be observed in the games tables that allude to the wars against the Ottomans.
All these games tables and board games combine tactical games. So it might seem logical that all representative games tables with symbols of war use tactical games. Here, a games table for games of chance is made of very precious materials, and thus becomes a representative piece of furniture. On the tabletop, we find symbols of war again, this time of a more general character.
The tabletop is rectangular with flat corners.
On each side there is an oval concave money tray, the typical feature of a gambling table. The top is made out of glass with under-glass paintings. In the middle of each side we find a cartouche of leaves and rocaille ornaments, inside the cartouches male and female busts, the attributes identify them as the four seasons. Mars and Bellona are sitting on the cartouches of the longer sides, and on the shorter sides we find war trophies, like banners, drums and trumpets, helmets, armors and various kinds of lances.
Carl Maximilian Mattern got the commission for four games tables in the year , and a bill of for the four games tables has been preserved. The other two games tables of the commission and bill probably were less precious, as they are not specifically described. In this case, a game of chance was considered representative enough to be combined with precious materials and war allegories. Card games and gambling were one of the major activities at courts of the time, but still there always has been a moral objection 44 B OA R D G A M E S T U D I E S 6 , 2 0 0 3 to gambling, so it seems quite unusual that a gambling table was made out of such representative and precious materials.
It is also reminded that the games table was made for a prince-bishop, who might have been more bound to the moral codex of his time. Considering games and gambling, though, there has always been a hypocrysity — on the one hand, gambling was condemned and there had been laws against it, on the other hand it had been a privilege of the court and nobility to gamble. Still, to be represented, nobility mainly used chess or other tactical games, and not games of chance.
The games tables with war allegories, as well as the board games from Eger prove, that games not only had a recreational function and served as past-times, but were highly representative and had symbolical meanings. Chess and other tactical games were part of the kunstkammer, where the whole world was to be collected. But also games of chance could be combined with war allegories.
Games and gambling had been an expression of power — for example at the court of Louis XIV, where it was the duty of each courtier to be at the gambling tables every day. Even though in France, gambling was an important part of the court society and served to gain and represent power, there are no such representative games tables in France. Those practices of gambling at court expressed the privilege of nobility to gamble, even though often there were laws which forbid gambling. In most European countries, there existed more or less precious games tables, but only in the German-speaking courts card tables and board game tables were combined with symbols of war.
Maybe it was the political situation in Germany which lead to the development of such games tables. Unlike in France or other European countries, there was no absolutism possible at German courts, as Germany consisted of many small territorial courts, more or less powerful. The different sovereigns not only had to claim their power against strong countries like France, but also had their own rivalries.
All absolutist sovereigns wanted to show their power. The fact that in German-speaking courts those games tables were combined with symbols of war to allude to a certain power of their sovereign could be read in the context of their need to express their claim to an absolutistic power. Hojer, Gerhard, Ottomeyer, Hans Ed. Sangl, Sigrid. In: Baumstark, Reinhold Ed. Erwerbungen und Schenkungen Trenschel, Hans-Peter, Voigt, Jochen. Reliefintarsien aus Eger. Games have been designed that simulate the range of human activities, from hunting and gathering, to war, business and economics to human relationships.
Many such games have as their theme the teaching of moral values Goodfellow Other games teach values indirectly through images used in the game design Averbakh Most of these games can be seen within the values perpetuated by western democracies. But any value system can be incorporated into a board game and then used to teach whatever the game designer desires.
This paper presents a brief overview of game types that must be considered racist. One such game from the Nazi period in Germany is described in detail. As a result, the history of racism is reflected in the theme of many board games. Some of these games use racist images, others make use of racial themes in the rules of play. Three American games will serve as examples. Both card games have racist illustrations, but racism is not an explicit theme of the game, and racist attitudes are not directly reflected in the rules Dennis Two copies of the game are known to exist.
Information about the game was sent to us by Acting Director Ben Barkow. In Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of the so-called Weimarer Republik and the first concentration camp for political dissidents was established at Dachau. In September the Nuremberg laws deprived Jews of all political rights in Germany, and in October Jewish property was confiscated. In Jewish passports were revoked, trapping hundreds of thousands of Jewish people within territories controlled by Germany. Soon after, the deportation of tens of thousands of Jews to concentration camps began Barnavi It has both the theme of racial hatred and employs racist images in the game design.
The object of the game is to deprive the German Jews of their property and to make them leave the city. The game board clearly states that the first player to remove six Jews from the city wins the game. In this way the game clearly foreshadows the policy of racial genocide that was to follow. Gaming material The dimensions of the board are 50 x 60 cm, the board is cardboard with cloth hinges. On the board are 13 specially marked circles with pictures of Jewish storefronts. On reaching these places a hat representing a Jew is awarded to the player.
The game board has three areas of text. On the lower portion of the game board can be seen caricatures of a man, a woman and a child, in the style in which Jews were stereotyped at that time figure 1. This graphic echoes a description given by Victor Klemperer in his diary Klemperer This A. Game board. Detail, game pieces as pictured on the game board. There are two types of game pieces. The pieces are made of painted wood, and measure 5. The faces on the hats are drawings of grotesque stereotypes of Jewish facial features similar to those drawn on the game board.
One copy of the game has a leather beaker for throwing dice but Mr. Barkow was uncertain whether this came with the game or was added by the anonymous donor. The up-to-date and outstandingly jolly party game for grown-ups and children. From 2 to 6 players can take part in this extraordinarily amusing and up-to-date family game. Equipment: 1 die, 6 figures and 36 little hats.
Each player takes one of the figures numbered 1 to 6. The method of play is as follows: Each player rolls the die and places his figure on the start-square of the street whose number is equivalent to that of the number thrown. Whoever occupies Street One is the leader and plays first. Each in turn then rolls the die and moves his figure the appropriate number of spaces towards the central square. If, having crossed the town wall, he lands on a square marked with a Jewish house, he gets a hat from the game leader and caps his figure with it. On his next throw he starts moving his figure back towards the collection-point and hands the hat back in.
If a player has thrown a six for example and is now three spaces away from the collection point, he can hand the hat in and then go forwards three spaces. This coming and going between the town wall and the central square continues until one player has got six hats over to the collection point.
Having handed in his sixth hat, he then goes back over the numbered squares to the central square. The first to do this wins First Prize. The other players can either carry on playing for position, or divide the remaining prizes among themselves according to how many hats they managed to collect.
Another method of play: When a figure has been capped, the person playing it continues moving forwards, according to the number thrown, towards the central square. If he there encounters another figure with a hat or hats, he can capture its hat or hats and bring them back to his own collection point. In following this method of play, it is possible for a player who A. Rulebook cover. Rules in German. When he has handed in six hats, he must go back to the central square. If he is the first to do this, he wins First Prize. The first version is a simple game of chance with no interaction between the players.
The game board uses a graphic of a wagon wheel, with pieces able to move along squares on the diameter of the circle and also on the spokes running straight from the outer edge of the circle to the center figure 5. Fabricius promotion flier photograph U. Game History The facts concerning the history of the game are few and contradictory. One of them had been canceled from the registry of trade by Article in Das Schwarze Korps photograph U. The second company is mentioned in the address-book for the first time in This company dealt with textiles.
The company existed until There is no evidence in the state archive that either of the two companies published this board game. From the archive of the city of Bad Neusalza-Spremberg comes the information that Fabricius born was a dealer in food products. The flier promoting the game distributed by Fabricius was included in the donation of the game to the Institute of Contemporary History and Wiener Library. The review is full of anti-Semitic propaganda and is very critical about the game.
There would be nothing wrong with this statement, if it would be a political insight or a commentary to the measures we have undertaken to fend off the Jewish rabble of murderers. It is just quite about the supposedly tasteful form and solid design of a This invention DRGM.
A Bibliography of English Etymology: Sources and Word List
We do not slave ourselves away with the solution of the Jewish question, to relieve able manufacturers of toys of their worries about a great big seller or to help children with an amusing little game. Jews out! The game is mentioned by Barbara Rogasky, who writes without giving further sources that the game was widely distributed and that by , when the politics of the Nazis still aimed at the forced emigration of the Jews, this game had sold over 1 million copies Rogasky It seems very unlikely that the game could have been successful in the face of condemnation by the SS and the resulting threats to Rudolf Fabricius.
It has been used as evidence by museums and college courses on the holocaust of the extent of antiSemitism in Nazi Germany. Another rumor claims a third copy of the game was recently sold to a private collector through internet auction. Several people have claimed to have heard of this game, but no version is known to exist.
Anyone with information about the rumors mentioned above are asked to contact the authors. There is no Nazi symbolism used in the game design and the article published in Das Schwarze Korps shows that the game was disdained — at least officially — in a major publication of the most important Nazi organization. But its true history may never be known for certain and many unsubstantiated rumors about the game exist.
It is hard to imagine a family sitting at a table playing a game that taught racial hatred. Yet it seems there were people like Rudolf Fabricius who imagined that some families would do just that. Fabricius was one of those mere supporters who thought to make some profit by following in the wake of Nazi anti-Semitic propaganda. There are many areas of the world where such a game might still find a receptive audience. Viewed in this light the game becomes more then just a distasteful footnote to the history of board games.
Bibliography Averbakh, Yuri L. Board games and Real Events. In: de Voogt, A. Barnavi, Eli. A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People. New York.
Bell, Robert C. Board and Table Games from Many Civilization. Revised Ed. Berenbaum, Michael. Dennis, Lee. Elkins Park, PA. Glonnegger, E. Das Spiele-Buch, Uehlfeld. Goodfellow, Caroline. Goodfellow, Caroline G. The Development of the English Board Game In: Board Games Studies 1: Klemperer, Viktor. Ich will Zeugnis ablegen bis zum letzten. Parlett, David. The Oxford History of Board Games.
Polizzi, Rick and Schaefer, Fred. San Francisco. Reurich, Lucien. Towards a Philosophical Characterization of Playing Games. Rogasky, B. Smoke and Ashes. The Story of the Holocaust, New York. Der Holocaust. Whitehill, B. American Games: a historical perspective, Board Games Studies 2, Special thanks to: David Parlett, Dr.
Paulik and Mr. Wagner at Bad Neuensalza-Spremberg, Dr. We are indebted to David Parlett for the translation from German to English. Trotzdem ist es in den spieltheoretischen juristischen, moralischen, theologischen etc. Texten von den zumeist pejorativen Konnotationen und Verurteilungen verschont geblieben. Jahrhundert bzw. Erst lieferte Thierry Depaulis einen neuen Befund. Forscher wie der Schach- und Brettspielhistoriker H. Zollinger M.
Edward M. Nummer 4 ist die Casa del trabajo. Wer auf sie zu stehen kommt, darf bzw. Nicht zuletzt haben die beiden Spiele die Anzahl der Felder 63 und zwei funktional differenzierte Kategorien, die Arbeitsfelder und die emblematischen Felder, gemeinsam. Anscheinend hat das wahrscheinliche Ursprungsland Italien chronologisch das Nachsehen.
In diesem Jahr erscheint Giovanni Croces ? Jahrhunderts datiert wurde Plantureux IX. Ein anderes Anfang des Jahrhunderts hatte das Spiel also schon eine deutliche Resonanz gefunden. In den ersten Jahrzehnten des Durch sie konnte ein breites Publikum erreicht werden, was in weiten Teilen Europas der Fall gewesen zu sein scheint.
Das Spielbrett vom Beginn bzw. Das erste Feld des Lyoner Spiels aus der Zeit um ist mit 1 beziffert und graphisch wie ein Portal gestaltet. Und offenbar nur sie. In Coriolanis Spiel ? Ein weiteres Spiel, das aus Deutschland stammt und auf datiert wird, zeigt auf Feld 61 hier falsch als 16 ebenfalls einen Kelch oder Pokal. Zwei solche Aufzeichnungen, die kaum bekannt sind, sollen im folgenden vorgestellt werden.
Dann beschreibt Aldrovandi die Spielanlage von eins bis Eine Gemeinsamkeit dieser beiden Felder ist die Gans. Jahrhundert ist es Feld Er belegt somit verschiedene bereits etablierte Spielgewohnheiten und Varianten. Und manche setzten auf Nummer 58, wo in Bologna der Tod abgebildet ist, den Teufel. Wer dorthin gerate, zahle den Einsatz und scheide aus.
Diese leitet er aus der arithmetischen Verteilung der Felder ab. So weit geht Aldrovandi jedoch nicht. Gobiet Gelangt der Befreier mit seiner Augenzahl auf ein besetztes Feld, geraten also im Zuge dieser Transaktionen zwei Marken auf dessen Ausgangsfeld, verbleiben beide Marken bis zum Weiterspielen auf diesem Ausgangsfeld des Befreiers. Nach vierzehn Punkten beendet August seine Regeln.
Jahrhundert zusammen. Jahrhundert in didaktischer Absicht die unterschiedlichsten Themen und Inhalte. Das Loto-Dauphin damals sehr en vogue sei ihnen unbekannt, denn alles sei Sache der Mode. Aldrovandi 21, Miscellanea vol. II, S. Si ludens peruenerit ad numerum quadragesimum s[ecundu]m, ubi est labirinthus, soluit, et deponit item totidem, quot in principio ludi deposuit.
Si quis postmodum peruenrit ad quinquagesimum s[ecundu]m, ubi est mantica, seu ualisia dicta, unde fortasse natum est prouerbiu[m] illud, tu sei in valisa ibi sistis. Ludus anseris iste, qui a nobiliori subiecto no[m]i[n]atus[? I guastafeste. La legge toscana sul gioco del In: Quaderni storici 95, a. XXXII, n. Geschichte der Kindheit. Barbeyrac, Jean Seconde Edition, 3 vol. Bulitta, Brigitte Dadson, Trevor J.
In: Barros, Alonso de. Madrid: Depaulis, Thierry In: Le Vieux Papier, fasc. Dietsch, Pierre Doering, Oscar Hg. Correspondenzen aus den Jahren im Auszuge. Dunkley, John Gambling: a social and moral problem in France, Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, Endrei, Walter Spiele und Unterhaltung im alten Europa. Hanau Budapest In: Le Monde, August: 8. Frati, Lodovico Glonnegger, Erwin Das Spiele-Buch. Gobiet, Ronald Bearb. Laurus Austriaco-Hungarica. Harms, Wolfgang Jahrhunderts, Bd.
Himmelheber, Georg Gesellschaftsspiele aus einem Jahrtausend. Huffman, Clifford Chalmers Der Pommersche Kunstschrank. Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph Schriften und Briefe, IV: Briefe. Frankfurt a. In: P. Pinto Crespo Hg. Milanesi, Franco und David Lanari A cura di Pro Loco Mirano. Mestrino — Padova. Negri, Ilio und Vercelloni, Virgilio Hg. Palasi, Philippe Parker, Geoffrey Philip II. Third ed. Chicago und La Salle, Illinois. Plantureux, Serge Catalogue de livres anciens. Seville, Adrian Tradition and Variation in the Game of Goose.
Colloquium in Florence, April Sieber, Harry Paris Erstausgabe Aix-enProvence: Westerveld, Govert und Navarro Belmonte, Florentina La damas: Ciencia sobre un tablero. Beniel Murcia. Wilckens, Leonie von Bearb. Spiel, Spiele, Kinderspiel. Wilson, Edward M.
Zollinger, Manfred Jahrhundert bis zum Zweiten Weltkrieg. In: The Playing-Card, vol. Zollinger, Manfred und Depaulis, Thierry Zwischen Allegorie und Realismus. Die Thematisierung des Spiels in der Musik. In: Homo ludens, X: Anmerkungen 1. Ich zitiere nach der zweiten, erweiterten Auflage. Zur Bedeutung Barbeyracs im spieltheoretischen Diskurs vgl.
Dunkley , passim. Zur kulturhistorischen Bedeutung der Klassifizierung von Spielen nach aleatorischen Kriterien vgl. Zollinger Die Datierung Endreis scheint falsch. Wie nicht anders zu erwarten, finden sich besonders im Internet abenteuerliche Ansichten. Bei Sieber wird noch bzw. Wilson spricht unrichtig von acht Arbeitsfeldern Wilson Siehe Dadson Fn. Abbildung und Beschreibung bei Wilckens Ich hatte leider keine Gelegenheiet, das Original zu autopsieren.
Auch dieser Hinweis stammt vom Schachhistoriker H. Nach M. Jahrhundert dort, , auch eine Abbildung. Das Blatt wird in Rambouillet aufbewahrt s. Jahrhundert zugerechnet werden. Glonnegger datiert auf das Auch Portugal ist noch wenig erforscht. Abgebildet bei Glonnegger Abgebildet bei Wilckens Das Blatt stammt aus der Sammlung Glonnegger Reprint? Zu Feld 62!
Jahrhunderts, zu sein. Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria, Ms. II, fol. Siehe beispielsweise Claudius Salmasius Saumaise : De annis climactericis et antiqua astrologia diatribae, Leiden: Elzevir Philipp Hainhofer an Herzog August d. April Unter der Signatur Cod. Ich danke Dr. Jahrhundert angelegt worden. Briefe an Johann Andreas Schernhagen, Dezember und Dezember . Fehler verantworte jedoch ich. Fragezeichen in eckigen Klammern verweisen auf Unsicherheiten bei Transkription und Bedeutung. En voici le texte original.